ABSTRACT

Discrimination consists of behaving differently toward people based on their membership in a social group. Discrimination can be blatant or subtle and is related to a person’s attitude toward performing a particular discriminatory behavior, not the person’s level of prejudice. However, behavior is constrained by group norms. People are often motivated to control their expressions of prejudice; despite this, people can lose control because of factors such as strong emotions, depletion of executive function, and feeling anonymous. When people realize that they have discriminated, they often feel guilty and want to atone for their behavior and to avoid behaving in the same way in the future. Workplace discrimination is found in hiring, performance evaluation, and promotion. Individual discrimination in the workplace is affected by selective attention to information and conformity to perceived norms. Victims of hate crimes are chosen because of their social group membership. Hate crimes are motivated less by intergroup attitudes than by a desire to protect the ingroup and peer group dynamics. Hate crime victims often suffer severe and long-lasting psychological consequences. Hate crimes have secondary effects on other members of the victim’s group.