The act of drawing a visual pattern, or matching it to a sample, may be taken either as form-perception or as memory for form. The perception of time has been recognized in psychology, or by some psychologists, but they have never faced up to the contradiction between this kind of time and memory-time, subjective time. Memory is what the memory methods are concerned with. But the trouble with this is that a great many experiments requiring the reproduction of items presented, or the recognition of them, could be and often are called experiments on perception instead of memory. Perception and learning could be accounted for without any assumption of memory considered as an accumulation of traces. Learning can occur without the intervention of remembering, just as thought can be imageless, and just as perception, can be sensationless. The concept of memory in its relation to perception is a muddle.