J. Richards assumes that a “cognitive reworking” of the input of the sensory nerves is necessary for perception. He has to assume something of that sort since the sensory input is obviously insufficient, for example in the case of the optic nerve where the third dimension has been lost in the retinal image. So has every other theorist had to assume something like a reworking of the input, but they have not been able to agree on what it is. Richards assumes that the retina, the optic tract, the lateral geniculate body, and the striate cortex “together constitute the organ of visual perception.” J. L. Austin once remarked that there was nothing so plain boring as the constant repetition of assertions that are not true. The classical theories of sensation-based perception can only begin to talk about activity after sensations have been aroused by stimuli.