Chapter 1 introduces the concept of melodic embellishment as a foundation for learning jazz improvisation. Melodic embellishment is ornamenting a simple melody with additional notes. Some embellishment techniques are common to classical composers and jazz musicians, including passing tones, neighbors, and appoggiaturas. Other techniques are particular to jazz, such as blue notes and enclosures. In the chapter, melodic embellishment is compared to English, where chord tones are consonants and non-chord tones are vowels. Also explored is the commonly asked question about whether or not historically great improvisers like Charlie Parker and Louis Armstrong were actively thinking about things like embellishment. The chapter compares the related skills of composition and improvisation as opposite sides of a coin, noting that both skills are common to comedians as well as musicians. The chapter presents and describes the different types of exercises that will make up the rest of the book.