Chapter 3 argues that any study of improvisation is incomplete without an in-depth study of rhythm, style, articulation, and phrasing. “The Charleston” became a culture-defining dance craze in the 1920s jazz age because of its pervasiveness of syncopation and its rhythmic style. The chapter presents a series of improvisation exercises that vary the two simple melodies introduced in Chapter 2, the “Distilled Saints Melody” and “Mike’s Original Saints Melody,” which are both based on “When the Saints Go Marching In.” The chapter includes abbreviated exercises, where the reader must understand the rhythms presented and complete the exercises with the patterns given. The technique of “half-tonguing” is presented as a method for de-emphasizing certain pitches. Readers will also create their own rhythmic variation using both improvisation and composition. Finally, the chapter suggests advanced studies including reworking the chapter exercises in asymmetrical meters and learning them in all 12 keys.