This chapter revisits the theme of citizenship in Taiwan in the 21st century by discussing the blue/green divide, ethnicity and how these legacies of Taiwan’s authoritarian era continue to undermine Taiwan’s ability to present a united front against China. It argues that overlapping interests on the fundamentals – freedom, democracy, civility, and so on – often are lost in the ruckus caused by political debate and efforts to secure an advantage ahead of the next elections. It discusses the tendency by Taiwanese officials to export those disputes abroad, which causes confusion among Taiwan’s partners. It also shows how longstanding divides have undermined efforts at reform within government institutions, which in turn has generated impatience with the Tsai administration. And it looks at other areas where modernization is necessary to make Taiwan an attractive destination for foreign talent and investment, including reform to create a level playing field in the educational and government sectors.