Chapter 8 reexamines the Freudian concept of “resistance” in light of object relations theory. This, in turn, leads to a reanalysis of the entire concept of the unconscious. In this chapter I argue that while in Freudian theory the unconscious is defined primarily by its contents, object relations theory tends to think in terms of unconscious processes. This leads to a significant difference in how the task of the therapist is conceptualized in terms of working through the resistance.