Just as experiencing trauma can be harmful, so can witnessing it. Not only are witnesses traumatized by their encounters, but they also blame themselves for not protecting victims or feel guilty that they were not personally harmed. Weingarten refers to the prevalence of trauma witnessing even outside the professional realm as common shock. Common shock, as she describes it, is a widespread, collective disturbance caused by exposure to violence. Common responses in witnesses include isolation/disconnection from others; despair, hopelessness and other emotions that can feel unmanageable; nightmares/flashbacks; sensitivity or cynicism, particularly regarding violence and disrupted feelings of safety. Professional caregivers witness trauma both personally and professionally, increasing their exposure. Testimonial psychotherapy, a form of narrative therapy, has helped witnesses of genocide and other traumatic events integrate, understand and find meaning in their experiences. Weingarten has delineated other ways to decrease potential harm from witnessing traumatic events.