This chapter sets out the empirical context and main theoretical framework for the book. The focus here is on outlining how heritage and photography intersect and overlap across various domains of practice, from the exhibition and the archive to family albums and site-based documentary projects. The two main case study sites – Angkor in Cambodia and Famagusta in Cyprus – are briefly introduced, along with the work of Scottish photographer John Thomson, which forms a point of departure at both localities. At its core the chapter asks why photography should be given any special preference in understanding heritage, and what a critical heritage perspective might bring to this line of enquiry. Affect theory is combined with Judith Butler’s concept of the frame to help open up these questions further, as well as lay the groundwork for subsequent discussions of memory, the site, ruinous archives, and the performative nature of heritage making.