The focus of this chapter is on students’ classroom goals. Various perspectives on what students try to accomplish at school are described. The chapter begins with a discussion of theories about goals. Need theories that focus on motives are discussed first, followed by a description of more recent work on the content of students’ goals (What is it that students are trying to accomplish?) and goal orientations (Why students are trying to achieve?). In subsequent sections, information and suggestions are provided concerning how teachers can have an impact on their students’ goals by way of the opportunities and instruction-related activities they create in the classroom.