This chapter focuses on two broad categories of beliefs relevant for understanding students’ motivation to learn: beliefs and expectations about ability, and beliefs about causality and control. The chapter begins with a theoretical overview. Beliefs about ability are discussed from three major perspectives: expectations for success (expectancy-value theory), self-efficacy (Bandura’s social-cognitive theory), and need for competence (self-determination theory). Beliefs about causality and control are discussed within the context of Weiner’s attribution theory and Dweck’s work on implicit theories of intelligence. Next, specific suggestions are offered for supporting students’ beliefs about their abilities to and their control over learning outcomes through curricular, instructional, and assessment strategies.