Although many world music traditions were originally preserved by aural tradition, some academics in ethnomusicology initially replicated Western musicological models that included a focus on written structural analysis of public sphere works and limited reporting of women’s musical-cultural roles. To help the reader better understand alternative presentation styles, interview data and storytelling narratives are discussed. Folk, popular, and art music traditions are highlighted, as is the work of several global superstars, including Umm Kulthum, Mercedes Sosa, Celia Cruz, and Angélique Kidjo. The chapter not only highlights the achievements of representative women in many facets of world music, but also addresses research processes and documentation challenges in ethnomusicology. Readers are encouraged to critically assess written and visual materials, and to recognize how music both reflects and shapes gender roles within culture.