Chapter 2 presents important considerations for our two main target audiences: second language (L2) speech researchers and teachers. The first section of the chapter is primarily targeted towards research considerations, including theoretical models (including corpus methods and intonational models), data sources, units of data analysis, methods of acoustic measurement, and challenges involved in L2 speech-related research. The second section of the chapter focuses mainly on considerations for L2 teachers in a listening/speaking classroom. The content describes the historical development of the speaking skills and their representation in the L2 classroom. The chapter ends with a discussion of the role of the development and current state of L2 speech assessment.