Chapter 3 is one of four core chapters in the book that describe the definitions and analysis of various linguistic features involved in the description of second language (L2) spoken discourse. This chapter introduces segmental features—i.e., those involving consonants and vowels. The first section of the chapter provides definitions of the most prominent segmental features as well as their representation in both first (L1) and second (L2) language speech research. The second section of the chapter provides a guide to the extraction and analysis of each feature discussed in the first section. Figures and descriptions are provided through the computer program Praat. The final section of the chapter provides pedagogical applications (as they relate to the L2 classroom) of the segmental features discussed.