Pluralists argue that power should be dispersed among different tiers of government rather than concentrated at the centre. Decentralisation is beneficial as it brings decision-making closer to the people: local authorities are better able to recognise and meet the needs of local communities. The term local government refers to the network of local authorities and other organisations in the United Kingdom. Elected local councillors within these authorities take decisions on behalf of the citizens and communities they represent. The 1974 reorganisation of local government in England and Wales introduced a two-tier system in which the functions of local authorities were divided between two levels of local government. The new pattern of local government was more uniform and streamlined than the diverse patchwork of authorities that had been in place for the previous 100 years. Local government officers provide policy advice to councillors and implement council decisions.