The Soviet ideology that was established by Lenin in 1917 embraced military violence as a legitimate instrument of policy and an essential feature of socioeconomic evolution. The US military buildup based on the model of containment, of course, fit neatly into the Soviet concept of an inevitable conflict between socialism and capitalism. The fact that the Soviets have embraced universalism poses a new challenge to the United States. The chapter suggests that the changes in thinking in the Soviet Union and the United States have generated significant prospects for the two countries to more fully realize the universalist ideals that both countries embrace. On the surface the Soviet government joined in the formation of the United Nations and ostensibly embraced Western universalist notions of international cooperation. Realism can steer policymakers to consider carefully the national interests of their country, and universalism canguide policymakers to align those interests with a long-term cooperative vision.