To understand the context of the campaign and to choose relevant program issues, I conducted a review of literature that included selections from the fields of education, sociology, political science, and development theory. I examined specific literacy campaigns such as those of Cuba, Guinea-Bissau, and Tanzania as well as UNESCO's international effort—the Experimental World Literacy Program (EWLP). This survey of literature and projects was made to determine key issues common to literacy work. I fully examined the Nicaraguan crusade's documents and files and observed participants for a period of one year. As a member of the central staff working on evaluation and future program development, my observations were mainly from a national planning perspective, but I also participated in activities in the field. The period of direct observation lasted from the planning stage to the operation phase through the implementation of the follow-up program. In addition to these procedures, I held open-ended and structured interviews with key Nicaraguan officials, program staff members, participants, international experts, and U.S. embassy personnel.