Maurice Barres aimed to provide nationalism with a new image. Like Charles Maurras and Italian Enrico Corradini, Barres came to nationalism from literature. Barres's nationalism is imbued with the notions of revanche and discipline. Barres formulated the idea of "organic nationalism," capable of reinforcing patriotic sentiment and unifying the nation, with which his name is identified. Authoritarianism, anticapitalism, anti-Semitism, and romantic revolu-tionism also characterize Barres's ideology, which should be considered in conjunction with the "integral nationalism" of Charles Maurras. The core of Maurras's thought is founded on ethical and religious factors and on his anti-Semitic and anti-Protestant views. Maurras's most typical work, Enquete sur la Monarchie, aimed at the "national" transformation of France's political problems by achieving national reconciliation in the name of the country's "traditional liberties" and by means of the monarchical principle. In a 1905 lecture on national life held in Rome, the patriotic affinities to Barres and Maurras were striking.