In order to understand the historical reasons for the contrast between communism and capitalism, Western European culture delved into a study of past political thinkers. German postwar stability and the country's cultural and economic influence may make Germany a political model, especially to Eastern Europeans after the fall of Communism. The separation was painful especially for those who had looked beyond their own political boundaries for inspiration and had firmly believed in solidarity and collaboration with other Europeans. The problem of East and West Berlin sanctioned the division between the American and Soviet superpowers, each of which sought to justify its political position on the cultural plane. Democracy is a parliamentary order that allows substitution of the political class and social changes without revolution. The problem of the role of the head of state has frequently been at the center of French political debate, which is particularly sensitive to the question of Bonapartism.