On June 22, 1815, four days after the Battle of Waterloo, Napoleon Bonaparte abdicated for a second time and was conveyed by the British to St. Helena, in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean. This event—along with the Act of the Congress of Vienna published on June 9,1815—marked the French revolutionary period's definitive end. In Spain the Bourbon dynasty was also restored in 1815 under Ferdinand VII, in whose name the Spanish people had risen against France in a bloody guerrilla war. German scholars have noted that after 1815 the US Constitution was in vogue in Germany as well, and that the writings of Benjamin Franklin were very popular. During the Restoration, the Utopians rejected politics as an expression of force and aspired to peace and harmony. Changing economic policies and altering human relationships would create a just society and bring about happiness, they believed, although their solutions frequently seem confused and unrealistic and for that reason were labeled "Utopian.".