New Jacobins reiterated the principles of 1793, demanding the just reordering of society by ending social inequalities that they believed derived from the private ownership of property. Jacobins believed in the revolutionary mission of the petite bourgeoisie and the lower classes, both of which were excluded from politics. A follower of Maximilien Robespierre, Filippo Buonarroti was arrested in Paris when the Jacobin period ended. The Revolution begins only following territorial liberation, with the gathering of a national council; this latter is the State's only fount of authority”. Giuseppe Mazzini condemned both class warfare and the dictatorial principle, advocating instead a democratic republic, after liberation, as a means of implementing social reform. Born in Genoa into a Jansenist family, Mazzini received a law degree in 1827; He joined the carbonari, the secret nationalist society found in much of Italy and France during the period.