This introduction presents an overview of the key concepts discussed in the subsequent chapters of this book. The book examines the consequences of the prevailing development model on one region within Central America–southern Honduras located within the Pacific watershed along the Gulf of Fonseca–where the growth of agricultural exports has been far-reaching and which is characterized by significant demographic changes, expanding impoverishment, food and resource scarcity, and environmental decline. It explores that the persistent crises in Central America are not due primarily to the actions of escalating numbers of backward peasants unaware of the serious repercussions of their acts. The book demonstrates the interrelationships among development, poverty, and the environment in southern Honduras. It considers the effects of the prevailing development model on more micro-levels of analysis–municipalities and rural communities. The book focuses on rural highland households as the major units of production and reproduction.