This chapter describes the diversification and organization of the household economy and the associated modifications in regional agricultural systems, and raises critical questions regarding the long-term social and ecological consequences of these linked strategies. It presents the case studies based on interviews and surveys completed between 1982 and 1987 that illustrates some of the diversity found in the economic survival strategies of households within each group. Rural Honduran women are entering the labor force in increasing numbers both in the formal as well as in the informal sector. The most significant causes of environmental destruction in highland areas of southern Honduras have involved the intensification of agricultural production, poor pasture management, and the expansion of agricultural and pasture lands into steeper, more marginal areas under conditions of rapid population growth. Although pasture is predominant on most of the better lands that are owned by large farmers, poor land management practices resulted in much of this land being overgrazed.