Current human and environmental crises in southern Honduras are the outcome of a long history during which the region became integrated into national and international systems. The political ecology that evolved over centuries, significantly affected the distribution and use of resources, precipitated dynamic contradictions between society and natural resources, and stimulated social and ecological change. These effects can be traced through the interrelations among multiple levels of analysis—from more macro-levels to more micro-levels. Households are also basic to understanding the interrelationships between development and enhanced destruction of the natural environment. Rural society and rural poverty are highly differentiated among and within communities; accordingly, there cannot be one program to combat rural poverty. Largely in response to the failure of the state to address the needs of local communities, social networks linking the multiple economic activities of households are growing in vitality and complexity.