Dependent measures used to test the dependent variable can be divided into obtrusive and unobtrusive measures. These are also referred to as reactive and nonreactive measures. When researchers consider using unobtrusive measures in an experiment they must also consider how they will manipulate the independent variable. If the manipulation is obtrusive it may prove difficult to have an unobtrusive measure of the dependent variable. S. Bochner used an unobtrusive measure of white Australians’ attitudes toward aborigines. When investigators operationalize the independent variable, they strive to match the conceptual variable as closely as possible and to maximize the precision with which they can carry out the manipulation. In operationalizing the dependent variable, similar goals are important. The problems associated with the dependent measure are the problems associated with measurement in general, that is, reliability and validity. A reliable instrument is one that gives repeatable measures.