The various nationalisms with their usual tendency to spill over into jingoism and messianism furnished the setting that accompanied the rise of pan-Slavism. For the rest of the nineteenth century and well into the twentieth, pan-Germanism proved to be more of a driving force in European affairs than pan-Slavism. When Russian pan-Slavism of the 1860s and 1870s is mentioned, we refer primarily to a number of individual exponents of pan-Slav views having no single program or organization to bind them together. There was considerable disparity, for instance, between the pan-Slavism of the scientist and social theoretist Danilevsky and that of the poet Tiutchev. Pan-Slavism entered a crucial phase in the mid-1870s when in Bosnia and Herzegovina, in Montenegro and Bulgaria; unrest against the Turks induced Russia to enter the South Slav struggle for freedom from Ottoman rule, which in 1878 resulted in Bulgaria’s liberation.