The direction of the apartheid dispute in 1965–1964 is notable for the role of the Organization of African Unity (OAU), formed in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, in May 1963. The new organization was an important force affecting the apartheid issue in international organizations, but only as long as African diplomats remembered the spirit of Addis Ababa. International organizations were forced into a posture of reaction, in which the results only occasionally contributed to dampening the dispute. If the previous period of anti-apartheid activity, 1960–1962, could be characterized as successful because of naivete and good fortune in certain forums, the victories of 1963–1964 were achieved through dynamic African leadership, diplomatic momentum from the OAU, and publicity about events in South Africa. The OAU was attracting attention for the African diplomatic stance in general. Thus the Security Council was ripe for being drawn into the maelstrom.