Czechoslovakia only came into existence in 1918. But the history of the Czechs and Slovaks and the lands they inhabit goes back a long way. The new state came out of the national movement, which could be placed quite far back in time. However, to appreciate the circumstances in which Czechoslovakia emerged and the driving-forces behind it, it is best to start in the aftermath of the 1848 revolution. The Slav tribes, from whom the modern Czechs and Slovaks are descended, moved into the area that Czechoslovakia comprises between the fifth and seventh centuries. The Czechs were remarkably fortunate in their geographical location. Bohemia and Moravia are surrounded by mountains, lower in the south-east than elsewhere, but a fair barrier against the incursion of enemies. Like most other revolts in central Europe in 1848–1849, the Czech revolt was in part subdued and in part collapsed. It was nonetheless highly significant. It was first and foremost a national phenomenon.