The Czech Lands were, in the words of a Czech historian, a nation without a state. Fifty years of rapid growth had seen many economic and social changes, and in the course of these the national movement had finally become what its name implied. In the pre-1914 period there also appeared a similar array of German parties confined to the Czech Lands: the Progressive, the Popular, the Pangerman, the Radical, the Christian Socialist, and the Agrarian. Although the Czech Lands were not even autonomous, let alone independent, there was enough activity centred in them for both Czechs and Germans to act in some things as if they were. Two national leaders in particular found themselves increasingly in opposition to the policy of the Emperor. Josef Kaizl and Karel Kramar had been partners with Masaryk in founding the original Realist group in 1889.