This chapter deals with a brief consideration of the balance between economic and ecological perspectives on pollution, in final analysis economics must be considered in dealing with remedies for pollution. One is that perception of pollution has improved in recent years, and awareness of the scale and repercussions of environmental pollution has heightened. In the Massachusetts Institute of Technology viewpoint, pollution represents a harmful accumulation of residuals from the production and consumption of goods and services. To the problems of urban air pollution and acid precipitation can be added other air pollution problems such as the atmospheric effects of high-flying aircraft such as Concorde; and the effects on the atmosphere of chloro-fluorocarbons. A number of effects of pollution on individual organisms relate to air pollution by industrial gas emissions. The basic approaches for monitoring environmental pollution are the same for both water and air pollution.