This introduction presents an overview of the key concepts discussed in the subsequent chapters of this book. The book looks at the earlier economic development of Hong Kong and government economic policy in Hong Kong. It deals with Hong Kong’s economic experience since the 1980s. The book also deals with the contingencies and possibilities of a departure from existing trends. Overall, the future of Hong Kong’s economy depends on three groups of factors: those related to mainland China; domestic economic policies and institutions; and external challenges. The economic performance of Hong Kong in the last few decades has been nothing short of phenomenal. From 1961 to 1993, real gross domestic product (GDP) in Hong Kong increased at an average rate of 7.8 percent per year and real GDP per capita achieved an annual average growth rate of 5.7 percent.