This chapter explores basic principles of mathematics education, as ­outlined by the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. Six essential elements of mathematics education are teaching and learning, access and equity, curriculum, tools and technology, assessment, and professionalism. The focus in the mathematics classroom needs to be broader than “showing” students how to perform skill-based procedures. The mathematics teacher must also be successful at establishing a positive classroom environment. This environment includes both physical characteristics of the room and a positive psychological climate that welcomes risk taking and encourages participation by all students. The use of technology in the mathematics classroom is essential and goes far deeper than “checking answers” after paper-and-pencil work has been completed. All of the principles of the mathematics teaching profession are linked together. It is important for a teacher to recognize this connection and to view the profession as an integrated whole of several important components.