The “publish or perish” adage has been revised to “publish in English or perish” in many parts of the world. The importance of publishing in English even when that is not the researcher’s native language is seen in Asia, Latin America and Europe (Englander & Uzuner-Smith, 2013; Flowerdew, 2013; Hyland, 2015; Solovova, Vieira Santos & Veríssimo, 2018). A recent study noted that researchers in Germany, France and Spain publish more papers in English than in their national languages (Huttner-Koros, 2015). The pressures to publish research in English have grown with changing economic ideologies that prize the globalization of knowledge and the so-called knowledge economy. In this book, we discuss the research publishing world that affects nations, universities and individual researchers. Within these contexts, there are growing efforts to mount pedagogical programs that support researchers who use English as an additional language (EAL) – whom we henceforth call plurilingual users of EAL – so that they can publish their research findings in international journals. The multiplicity of such pedagogical efforts has created a burgeoning field that has been called English for Research Publication Purposes (ERPP).