In 1940, the London Philharmonic Orchestra (LPO) had to face major changes. Respect for tradition and the practicalities of orchestral life were firmly inculcated in Malcolm Arnold during his playing years. One character in the LPO was the viola player Wraybum Glasspool, who was a devotee of the Second Viennese School; indeed he had studied with Anton Webern, and he encouraged Arnold to explore serial music. A particular feature that Arnold picks up is the duplets towards the end, which provide a useful rhythmic contrast with the otherwise constant compound pulse and the appogiatura which adds a note of pungency to the proceedings. Arnold returned to civilian life without any recriminations, and soon found him playing next to his old teacher Ernest Hall as second trumpet in the BBC Symphony Orchestra. The year 1948 saw the beginning of a steady spate of new works by Arnold, which would continue until the early 1960s and which is staggering by contemporary standards.