ABSTRACT

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3.

Genus Proximum.

Differentia.

Dictionary.

An alphabetically arranged work of reference.

Containing the words of a language (or of some special department of knowledge) and their meaning.

Encyclopedia.

An alphabetically arranged work of reference.

Containing information on all subjects, or on some group of subjects.

Bank.

A financial institution.

For receiving deposits, borrowing and lending money.

Bill of Exchange.

A financial document.

In which one person requests a second to pay money to a third person.

Science.

Systematized knowledge.

Relating to the laws and general characteristics of some class of facts.

Logic.

Science.

Of the general conditions of valid inference.

16Economics.

Science.

Of the production, preservation, and distribution of wealth.

Democracy.

System of State government.

Which is controlled by the people.

Socialism.

A social theory.

Which advocates that all land and capital should be owned, and all industries should be controlled, by the people collectively.

Syndicalism.

A social theory.

Which advocates that each industrial group of workers should control the instruments of production which it uses.

4.

Remote genus [the genus proximum would be “lines in the same plane”], and proprium [the differentia would be “equidistant”].

Accident.

Differentia.

Accident.

Proprium.

Proprium.

Accident.

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10. Let n stand for native, m for male, a for able-bodied, s for skilled, then we get the following sixteen classes: https://s3-euw1-ap-pe-df-pch-content-public-p.s3.eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/9780429060366/65283554-cce2-4b71-b347-7cf429b427da/content/figp17.tif"/>

17When describing each of the ultimate divisions, the wider classes in which it is included must, of course, be taken into account. Thus the first s stands for the division s a m n (skilled, able-bodied, male, native paupers), while the last s ¯ https://s3-euw1-ap-pe-df-pch-content-public-p.s3.eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/9780429060366/65283554-cce2-4b71-b347-7cf429b427da/content/eq1.tif"/> stands for the division s ¯   a ¯   m ¯   n ¯ https://s3-euw1-ap-pe-df-pch-content-public-p.s3.eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/9780429060366/65283554-cce2-4b71-b347-7cf429b427da/content/eq2.tif"/> (unskilled, non-able-bodied, female, foreign paupers).

11. Let m stand for many-worded terms, a for abstract terms (ā will ∴ = concrete terms), g for general term, c for collective terms, and r for relative terms ( r ¯ https://s3-euw1-ap-pe-df-pch-content-public-p.s3.eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/9780429060366/65283554-cce2-4b71-b347-7cf429b427da/content/eq3.tif"/> will ∴ = absolute terms), then we get the following scheme : https://s3-euw1-ap-pe-df-pch-content-public-p.s3.eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/9780429060366/65283554-cce2-4b71-b347-7cf429b427da/content/figp17a.tif"/>

1812. The two principles are (a) the number of those who rule, and (b) the way in which they rule.

Two or more principles of division may be employed successively (see preceding tables of division, e.g.), but not at the same stage of division.

13. Popularly the term “category” is used for any class, or description, of things; and “predicament” is used for any state or condition, especially for an awkward plight. In Logic, and in Philosophy generally, these terms are used as synonyms, and are applied only to the ultimate modes of being, and to our ultimate modes of apprehending reality or of thinking about it. (See H. W. B. Joseph: Introduction to Logic, Ch. III.)

14. A. Wolf: Essentials of Scientific Method, Ch. III.

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18. If, when we think of a genus, we think not only of the characters common to all its species, but also of the alternative variations which characterize its several species, then the generic term will connote, as well as denote, so much more than any one of its species. But is this what happens always, or even generally ?

19F. H. Bradley: Principles of Logic, Vol. I, Book I, Ch. VI.

19. The specific term implies all that the generic term implies and more—the specific term being the equivalent of the genus and differentia. Therefore, if the specific term can be affirmed of a subject, the generic term can be (in fact is thereby) affirmed of it. The new proposition will actually assert less than the old one. But, just because the specific term implies more than the generic term, the former cannot be affirmed of a subject instead of the latter without going beyond the evidence.

20. What is affirmed of any genus is ipso facto affirmed of all its species, for the genus consists of all its species. It is therefore permissible to substitute for it any of its species. The new proposition will assert less than the original one. But to assert of the genus what is only known of one of its species would be to assert of a whole what is only known of a part, and would go beyond the evidence.

21.* H. W. B. Joseph: Introduction to Logic, Ch. III.

22.* J. S. Mill: System of Logic, Book I, Ch. III, and Joseph, Ch. III.

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25.* W. E. Johnson: Logic, Vol. I, Ch. VII.