Students are strongly urged to make themselves familiar with the symbolic representation of propositions. Beginners are prone to cling to the actual wording of the given sentences, and to try to obtain the new form required direct from the words. This is a mistake. Symbolic forms when mastered make the relationships between propositions much clearer and less liable to misapprehension. And the amount of symbolic skill required for ordinary Logic is really small, and readily mastered with a little effort.