The whole history of Egypt is one of nonaggression and shows the imprint of the fact that the Pharaoh was always the ruler of a sedentary people. It seems most natural, in considering the various regions of the Sahara in detail, to begin with Egypt, which is really a world unto itself. Throughout the entire duration of Egypt this natural plan of the desert has facilitated its surveillance and complete domination by the masters of the valley, since the days when such authority was represented by the chariot and infantry forces of the Pharaohs or those of the Roman Legion. A particular feature of the Egyptian portion of the Libyan Desert is the four groups of oases, Kharga, Dakhla, Farafra and Baharia, all of which are of very ancient fame. Since Egypt was always the center of progress and civilization in the Orient, it is natural that methods should have been more advanced than elsewhere.