One of the most interesting aspects of the witch in earlier centuries was her role as healer. Barbara Walker points out that in many cultures witches had metaphoric names such as ‘herberia’ (one who gathers herbs), ‘pixidria’ (keeper of an ointment box), and ‘femina saga’ (wise-woman). When witchcraft was deemed heresy by the Catholic Church in the fourteenth century, the services witches had previously performed were labelled as crimes – particularly midwifery. Carrie provides a particularly interesting representation of woman as witch and menstrual monster. Most critical articles on Carrie explore the way in which the film presents a critique of the family and of middle American values. The mother-child relationship in Carrie, as in Psycho, is depicted as abnormal and perverse. By associating Carrie's supernatural powers with blood, the film draws on superstitious notions of the terrifying powers of menstrual blood.