This chapter examines the background relationship and the agreement between the Soviet Union and Cuba with regard to the deployment of Soviet troops and nuclear missiles in Cuba. Amid the sharpened contradictions that characterized U.S.–Cuba relations in the spring of 1962, the Soviet leadership proposed to top Cuban political authorities the deployment of nuclear arms capable of deterring the Kennedy administration from launching a direct military aggression against Cuba to overthrow the Revolution. The chapter also looks at the practical parts of Anadyr, an enormous military operation that consisted of transferring more than 40,000 Soviet soldiers and various types of weaponry and material to Cuba. It also addresses Cuban doubts concerning the nuclear missiles.