In this chapter we discuss the historical destruction of Indigenous populations and their fight against colonial oppression. Using data from the 2010 Brazilian Census, we look at today’s Indigenous population and extant languages. We consider the unsurpassed contributions of Indigenous peoples to Brazilian culture and society. Extinction of more than 500 diverse ethnic groups resulted in the loss of thousands of years of cultural heritage. In spite of this, Indigenous groups have demonstrated resilience and resistance to the dominant group by preserving their own cultural, social, economic, and belief traditions. This refusal to accept domination is worthy of our attention. We examine music and dance (cabocolinhos and dança dos tapuias) with a description of each dance and a musical example. We acknowledge Marlui Miranda’s unparalleled contribution to the culturally appropriate preservation and dissemination of Indigenous music. The Up Close section emphasizes the work of the all-female group Mawaca and its director, Magda Pucci.