This chapter examines the specific cohorts of this book (FSWs, PWID and floating migrants) in some depth and in the Chinese context. It also reveals the shortfalls and challenges in HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment programmes in China. Discussions took place with NGOs and CBOs dealing with the specific key population cohorts in China and many of their observations and experiences are examined in this chapter. Some of the programmes currently underway in China were also discussed, as were the current funding shortages.