This chapter discusses how explicit direct instruction in the writing processes is one of the best ways of teaching apprentice writers. There is no single agreed-upon writing process, but there are many approaches to it. The writing processes are often recursive and include strategies such as exploring, generating ideas and thinking; pre-writing, visioning, dabbling, talking aloud, drawing and planning; drafting; refining, re-drafting, re-reading, improving and revising; proof-reading and editing; and publishing, performing and evaluating. Research shows that, when experienced, children should be given agency over their writing process.

Agency over writing topics contributes to the writer’s motivation, enjoyment and development. Research shows the importance of planning and drafting as a low-stakes process with the focus on composition. The important revision stage is discussed, including different types of re-reading and making improvements. Reconsidering and trying out are key to effective revising.

Motivation to proof-read and use punctuation with care comes from the sense of a genuine reader at the end of the writing. Editing skills are best embedded in the context of children’s own composition, and aspects of proof-reading can be attended to over several sessions. The chapter discusses that only when children become fluent writers can they cognitively deal with composition and transcription at the same time.