Increasingly, the host community is being recognized as a major player in decision-making about tourism management and the future direction of tourism. However, as has been stated previously, the term host community is not necessarily appropriate as tourists are not always welcome in a destination. A more appropriate term could be local community, resident community or destination community. This chapter indicates that it is misleading to regard a host community as a homogenous group and discusses the implications of heterogeneity of local communities. It also critically evaluates notions of community participation in tourism planning and management decision-making.