This chapter scrutinises some of the specifically developmental psychological research drawn upon within the Human Development Index , including educational policy, highlighting some key slippages of reading and interpretation. It considers the intersections, and corresponding mutual legitimation strategies, between models of gendered, national and international security. The chapter traces connections between representations of childhood and North-South relations through a reading of key international aid and development texts. It illustrates some consequences of the historical and geographical mappings of gender, culture and childhood by juxtaposing psychological models that inform aid programmes for children of the South, and models of the process of development in which so-called ‘developing countries’ are said to be engaged. The chapter indicates how different disciplinary areas and professional practices are structured by a common set of assumptions that link North and South, and the children of the North and South, within structural relationships of inequality.