Content analysis describes a research technique where a planner makes observations by systematically analyzing written or spoken communication, such as planning commission meeting transcripts concerning a proposed subdivision, to systematically assess who said what about the project. Meta-analysis allows to analyze different research reports and articles in one research project. Unlike content analysis, meta-analysis uses only published secondary data, such as research reports and articles written by government agencies, universities, and nonprofit research-based or service-based organizations. Planners commonly use content analysis to assess three types of communications: meetings, communications with the planning agency, and published reports. In addition to the empirical reasons, meta-analysis is a convenient research strategy for planners who want to access a tremendous amount of information to analyze as time permits. Observations generated through meta-analysis are particularly insightful when people need a big-picture understanding about a research problem.