In this chapter, the authors describe the concept of relational schemas as a fundamental construct in mindfulness- and compassion-oriented integrative psychotherapy (MCIP). The concept of relational schemas provides us with an understanding of the client’s inner world and how this world impacts the relationship with others. Relational schemas are relational patterns that were developed based on repeated experiences with significant others. They describe how we relate to ourselves and how we establish relationships with other people. The schemas can be adaptive or dysfunctional. In this chapter, the authors propose three main psychotherapy tasks related to relational schemas: developing decentred awareness of relational schemas, change of dysfunctional relational schemas, and developing new adaptive schemas. They discuss the process of memory reconsolidation as the main mechanism of change of dysfunctional relational schemas. The process of memory reconsolidation is based on neurological research, which shows that old emotional learning can be revised at the neurological level. The authors describe how the change of dysfunctional schemas occurs through the process of memory reconsolidation and how mindfulness and compassion are crucial in this process.