Shame fits the facts when someone has violated a group rule or norm to such an extent that if the group were aware of the transgression there is a risk that he or she would be expelled. Historically there are many benefits of being in a tribe, including protection from threat and the pooling of resources. This cheater highlights the signature features of shame and presents an example scenario of shame in which the client reports having an urge to harm herself after watching a TV documentary about people on benefits, which was very negative. It discusses special considerations in regulating shame. Shame is justified when risk of rejection is high. It is not necessarily a sign of wrongdoing. People who have well-developed consciences are more prone to guilt and shame.