This chapter describes common presentations of secondary emotions, and how they function to protect the client from the worst effects of the primary emotion. There are snippets from sessions that demonstrate how to address the emotion if it seems likely that there is a different primary emotion. The author gives some principles on whether to go for an exposure intervention or to stick with emotional literacy training. Some common contingencies that impede emotion regulation are described, such as the losses clients might suffer if they recover – losing financial benefits or support services. Finally there is a short summary of the steps in emotion regulation that have been described in the previous chapters.