The colleges became part of a spreading network of intellectual, educational, and cultural institutions via interlocking directorates, shared facilities and personnel, and mutual support of various kinds. In search of prestige and efficiency the colleges collaborated among themselves and with the older institutions of higher education. The colleges made advice and equipment available to secondary schools and provided courses suitable for their staff. The colleges were determined to serve, and if necessary, to shape, a particular type of student. The colleges found the creation of a disciplined student body surprisingly easy. Evening classes offered a chance to broaden the scope of the colleges’ clientele and services, as well as increasing total enrolments. The colleges enlarged their scope by absorbing entire institutions with their members, clientele, and functions. The most important incorporations were of medical schools. As civic colleges Owens, Yorkshire, and University met the needs of the surrounding communities and their members.