ABSTRACT

Body Integrity Identity Disorder (BIID) is often paired with Gender Identity Disorder, in which individuals are uncomfortable with their anatomy and desire to alter their body as a result. Many BIID patients exhibit gender identity issues, are often homosexual or bisexual, and some have reported feelings of wanting to be the opposite sex. A variety of treatments have been explored to ease or eradicate phantom limb pain, including robot hands, vision-based therapies and the rubber hand illusion, in which by stroking an artificial hand one may feel sensations in the absent limb. V. S. Ramachandran’s research on Phantom Limb Syndrome focuses on the neurological reaction to the trauma of an amputated limb. Ramachandran developed the idea for the mirror-box by studying “learned paralysis”, which occurs when an appendage has been paralysed prior to amputation and causes the same sensation of phantom paralysis post-amputation.